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Was Adelle Davis a quack? August 5, 2006

[S_Y had come across the website self-admittedly titled QuackWatch, wherein Adelle Davis is severely attacked with open pre-judged bias, and worries that what QuackWatch says is true. Kim Salisbury, list owner of, replies]

Dear S_Y and everyone,

I'm really glad you have opened up this question! Adelle Davis was continually attacked by the American Medical Association, the Food and Drug Administration, and myriad others while she was alive, and it is testimony to the power of her writing that those people still pay great amounts for attacks against her writings today. (The website probably cost well over a million dollars to construct. And, who paid for it?)

The website you refer to ( was written, presumably, by Stephen Barrett, MD, where he admits he is watching out for quacks (doctors who practice bad medicine and cheat people). Thus, he admits openly that he is biased, right from the start. Does anyone think he is going to present a fair view of any incident? How can he be fair, when he is limiting himself to attacking people already judged to be fraudulent?

The website presents a wide range of credentials, both for themselves (and who are they?) and for Dr. Barrett. We are supposed to look at him and his credentials and automatically believe everything there, based on "their" authority. But who are they? Do they tell you where their money is invested? Do they even mention how much an MD gets paid a year over here (something close to a third of a million dollars per year; more for specialists).

No, "Doctor" Barrett has one vested interest: to defend the rights of "doctors" here to collect that kind of money, and to keep having customers. Insurance in the US is based on "capitation," which means, literally, "head count." It's the numbers of insured patients that keeps the money rolling. Without those huge enrollments, the whole system would come to a pitiful halt. So, they're plugging the dykes wherever they see a leak, wherever the people are getting knowledge that might make them stampede away, instead of toward, hospitals and practicing establishment doctors. They fear such a stampede, but it wouldn't happen that way, anyway. Most people just follow the herd, afraid to strike out on their own. As long as the establishment controls the media, and keeps pushing medical advertisements down our throats, the people will keep believing the establishment is doing all it can to make us well. :-)

Statements used in debates, to substantiate a claim, are based on one of two things: either on a good factual description, or on the authority of the source.

Adelle's statements were always of the first type ~~ based on factual description. But, at the same time, she gloriously establishes her authority by her credentials of training. No doctor can claim anything near what she has accomplished in canvassing the scientific literature.

She had read the scientific research in biochemistry (both in England and the US) more broadly and in more depth and for more years than any other writer of note, and had put her knowledge to practice with tens of thousands of clients. She footnoted or referenced every single claim she ever presented, tying each bit of information to solid research, and not just one instance of research, but several, for any one claim.

Barrett's statements are based entirely on his claimed authority. Never do we see any direct quotes from Adelle Davis giving the dosage amounts that supposedly caused harm. Never do we see the dosage amounts the "victims" supposedly took that caused that harm. All we see are gross over-generalizations, and those are sloppily presented, purposely to confuse and disorient the reader so that he or she will be desperately trying to "get a handle" on the page, and in the process, latch onto the words "Adelle Davis" that are displayed in bold, red type, which every Westerner subconsciously links with danger, anger, guilt, and more. And very rarely do we even see an actual name and identified source of information. Everything he says is supposed to be taken as Gospel Truth, just because He said it.

But, unlike Adelle, the medical profession gets no real education in biochemistry and microbiology. They study the overt symptoms of diseases, and the drugs to treat them with. And in that, the U.S. is undeniable good. But learning all that takes up almost all the time in medical school.

Medical students must of necessity take their own textbooks at face value during the years of intense pressure of med school. Those textbooks and study guides likewise make statements based on authority, without explaining the biochemical and microbiological reasons behind the behavior of the diseases and drugs. The medical student has no time to ask, "Oh, why is that?" He just has to memorize everything put before him. One such is labelled (I can't say "titled" because the usual format of a book title is not followed in this tome) USMLE Step 1 Review Series 1999 Edition Microbiology Immunology. Furthermore, this book does not even contain a publisher's identification at all!!! Who funded this book? That's the question!! Who writes the books that MD's take on faith??? That's a whole nother ballgame, one which is fascinating to pursue. This book has only a defunct website ( for identification! Yet it served as some doctor's medical reference, because he/she has added several plastic tabs to the pages for easy opening.

Doctors are encouraged to never let their authority be questioned. Once one is suspect, all are suspect. So they band together, and keep mouthing the same untruths, such as the injunction that Vitamin A is dangerous because it "can be toxic." Ask any doctor to show you a study that establishes HOW MUCH vitamin A is toxic. "Oh, I've read them, many of them," he'll tell you. Ask him to get you even one reference. He cannot.

This approach of commanding, "Thou shalt believe me," can be felt in the air of hospitals and doctor's offices everywhere in the US and probably throughout in the western world (I didn't find that same egotistical dominance in Asia, however).

If Barrett's statements are examined one at a time, the degree of truth in them can easily be ascertained. Let's look at one such statement, taken from [Note: if you go to this link, notice the deliberately confusing structure of the page. It is designed to disorient and confuse, and leave you with only one subconscious impression: Adelle Davis, in red ink, bad, bad, bad.]

"A 2-month-old boy died because his mother, following the invalid recommendation for colic in Adelle Davis's Let's Have Healthy Children, overdosed him with potassium ."

First, we note that Barrett does what MD's are always blaming health professionals for doing ~ he quotes one instance out of context, and implies that there are numerous other instances like this. But, he doesn't have any figures for how typical this case is. Is it one out of two million, or one out of two dozen?

Second, he uses a negative judgment of "invalid" but nowhere states what specific dose recommendation Adelle made that was "invalid." He just cries "invalid!" on his own authority, and expects the reader to swallow it, because he said so.

Third, he admits next that the mother was following "vegetarianism and veganism," establishing the fact that the mother certainly was not basing her decisions solely on Adelle Davis's writings.

Fourth and most important, he establishes absolutely no identification for this report: no names, no cities, no dates. He expects the reader to swallow it on authority because it was "in a television interview." What TV station in what city? What date? How can anyone verify that such a mother and child ever really existed?

I can say, "A woman gave birth to an elephant." ~~ there, it's in print. So, do you believe it? But thousands of National Enquirer newspapers were sold with that headline, AND a photo. No, to establish that an event really happened, the event must be identified in space and time, so the reader has recourse to questioning any witnesses and reporters.

It's plain that "Doctor" Barrett is the one distorting the truth. He has never once even come close to refuting the research presented by Adelle Davis. Not one time has he stated any numbers, any doses or amounts, in any of the handful of (too often anonymous) cases he "reports."

Moreover, Adelle never had to call anyone by slurring epithets like Barrett and his gang do; she simply stated the research, in full. If, among the hundreds of thousands of people so profoundly helped by her information, there were indeed zero misfortunes, zero people who died anyway, zero who suffered reversals of health, she certainly would not have been the top scientist and reporter that she was ~~ she would have been divine. Gladly, she was no more divine than any of us, even The Quack-Watcher, Doctor Barrett.

What did Adelle recommend in the way of potassium for colic?

"A potassium deficiency causes the contractions of the intestinal muscles to slow down markedly or these muscles to become partially or completely paralyzed [3 footnotes to medical research]. ... This condition, which allows gas pains to become excruciating, is usually associated with constipation. For instance, a study of 655 colicky infants... revealed that the lower the blood potassium dropped, the worse the colic became [1 footnote, to Nutritional Review, 1956]. When 1 gram of potassium chloride was given them by injection, the colic quickly disappeared. Pantothenic acid, added to formula or drinking water, would probably have been equally effective." [Let's Get Well, 1965]

Did Adelle Davis recommend giving infants a gram of potassium by injection? Even if she had implied that mothers should do that, which obviously she did not, could Dr. Barrett's supposed victim's mother (if such a person ever really existed, which I doubt) have given her infant a gram of potassium by injection? If so, such a mother would have been capable of any other types of abuse, and could not by any stretch of the imagination be said to be following Adelle Davis's advice!

Adelle continues on to describe all the nutrients that combine to give more mobility to the intestines, thereby relieving the gas pain. Adelle never recommends taking just one nutrient, but several, taken in wise combination, and obtained from foods, not pills, whenever possible.

Barrett has less than half a dozen "examples" of people who supposedly "followed Adelle Davis's advice" and got sick rather than well. And each of them, like the claim of "a mother" above, are unidentified by source or reason, and laden with perjoratives like "food faddist," "damaging," "deception," "false," "invalid," and statements such as, "close examination of her writings indicates that she consistently misinterpreted research reports or simply made things up."

Where's the "close examination"? How about even just one quantified dosage, Dr. Barrett? Come on, with so much close examination, you should be able to give one dose, in objective numbers instead of emotional slurs, that Adelle Davis recommended a patient or reader of hers to take, which you have a named and identified witness attesting to. Just one, come on, just one...

Everyone, I must remind you that almost every establishment doctor in the U.S. earns millions of dollars in his/her lifetime. That's a huge volume of money to dam up and hold back. A doctor friend in Asia, when I asked him why he didn't move to the U.S. and get rich, said he could not, in all conscience, charge that much money from his patients. Something is grossly wrong here; a collective mentality of ignorance and bullyism pervades. Doctor Barrett is just one example of thousands (millions?) of doctors who are ready to castigate anything that casts doubt on their authority.

In the words of one American Medical Association representative, reported by the British Broadcasting Company, whom the AMA was attempting to block from airing an hour-long special on Dr. Josef Issels, Germany's great cancer researcher: "If you [air it], the next time you have a rectal exam it will be all the way up to your tonsils," or words to that specific effect. Something of a threat, wouldn't you say? If they're capable of saying something like that, what else are they capable of doing to protect their interests?

Kim Salisbury
La Mirada, California
list owner

Reviews of Adelle Davis books at

Finally, a nutrition manual for everyone, October 21, 2001
Reviewer: Greg Dempster from Laguna Beach, California
(9 out of 9 people found this review helpful.)
Although I risk the limits of good taste, I am compelled to say that this is the only useful nutrition book I've read in the last 40 years. I began to apply the Davis nutrition principles in my teen's and have been thankful for the energy, stamina and shameless good health I've enjoyed since. This book is readable, accessibile, and clearly describes human biochemistry in a way that anyone can understand. Davis does not present fad diet propaganda as every other writer seems to do; instead, she describes the delicate and fascinating work of the food we eat and its affect on our bodies. She describes the process of digestion, the action of trace minerals and vitamins on enzymatic reactions, and the nutrional losses to food when it is processed or overcooked. Did you know that calcium cannot be absorbed in the gut unless it is dissolved in the presence of fat and hydrochloric acid? Davis explains why. Most importantly, there is a chapter devoted to serum cholesterol and its relation to lecithin and magnesium levels in the body, heavily documented with research that is still accepted today. This ought to be required reading for every person concerned about heart disease! The biochemistry she presents is the same biochemistry still being taught in colleges today.

I must disagree with other readers who believe that Davis' information is dated. Many of her principles have withstood the test of time and are again being validated by current research and practice, sometimes depressingly so. She spoke out long ago against low fat, low protein, high carbohydrate diets that have became fashionable of late. If her advice had been heeded, this country might not now be facing the highest rates of obesity, diabetes, and other diet-related diseases that are epidemic in America. All her assertions are backed by copious references to research, and there is a comprehensive index. It is the only book of all those in print that I would recommend to someone truly interested in achieving health through nutrition. --This text refers to the Mass Market Paperback edition.

Reviewer: A reader from Los Angeles, CA
(5 out of 5 people found this review helpful.)

Before Pritikin, Ornish, Brody, the New Pyramid, and all that no fat, low fat insanity - there was Adelle Davis. Through her writings she introduced a nation to good balanced nutrition. From her we learned what vitamins, minerals, essential amino acids, good fats, etc. were important for our health. She wrote in a no nonsense easily understandable and at times entertaining manner (she made learning about nutrition fun). Though there have been many new discoveries in nutrition since then, much of her writings remain basic and true today. I still often refer to this book and only wish that the publisher re-issues it - as my copy is barely holding together. --This text refers to the Mass Market Paperback edition.

A Classic that is still relevant, August 11, 2002
Reviewer: Beth (see more about me) from Jackson, California United States
(5 out of 5 people found this review helpful.)

We own this in both hardback and paperback and its nice to see that it is still in print, and with a few changes. First became aware of Ms Davis in the late 60's and she was the one who was at the forefront of the whole foods movement here in California and what would later become known as holistic living and the belief that supplements like vitamins and minerals could alleviate and even rid a plethora of medical concerns. That it is additives, coloring and preservatives in foods that cause problems including hyperactivity and obesity.

She was ahead of Ornish and McDougal and all the others when it came to teaching moderation and healthy oils like olive oil, as well as the need to drink more water. This is a book I still recommend.

"Let's Eat Right..." great long-standing nutrition advice, January 24, 2002
Reviewer: A reader from Plano, IL United States
(10 out of 10 people found this review helpful.)

I've used "Let's Eat Right to Keep Fit," on and off, for 30 years. It's the best "no fad" nutrition advice for everyday living I have ever seen.

What I like about the book is that Adelle tells me what to expect when I eat or don't eat certain foods. She tells me the EFFECTS of what I choose to eat, mental, physical, general outlook, and health symptoms such as skin tone or heart rate. For example, the relationship of protein to blood sugar is discussed (the more protein you eat, especially at breakfast, the more stable your blood sugar level stays throughout the day -- fewer highs and lows), and that has served me well over the years in planning for high-performance days that require an alert mind and body all day long.

These "old" studies still apply -- I think the book was written when they were studying vitamins intensely, as she cites a lot of studies on this with human volunteers, and what happens if you are missing just 1 vitamin, B6 for example.

She puts together this type of information:
- mental state
--- depression
--- irritability
- physical symptoms
--- sore mouth
--- dry, cracked lips
--- magenta tongue!
- vitamins
- minerals
- soils
- oils
- protein
- food preparation and growth style
--- organic
--- fresh
- supplements
- What to Eat in certain cases:
--- to recover from long-term chronic stress
--- to keep your blood sugar level stable each day

... and she walks you through how to establish a daily diet (you can do the quick view or spend time and do it more completely).

You can take one or two tidbits of info, or really read what happens at the cellular level (i.e., the relationship of SALT to POTASSIUM -- inside each cell and outside each cell - it's fascinating).

I recommend the hardcover book. You may want to skim it, get what you need today from it and apply it, and put the book on the shelf.

Sure as can be, pretty soon you'll remember, "didn't I read in Adelle..." and you'll want to reference it again.

You know why you'll do that? Because your mind will be functioning better, and you'll have a better outlook on life, be more curious about new things, and have the energy to do something like write this book review, which I've never done before!

By the way, she says if you put several healthy choices of food in front of a young child, she'll pick the ones her body needs! I found this to be true, and I do it myself -- if those apricots are calling to you (for me it was the dried sweetened mangoes), it may mean you NEED something they have (vit. A).

Some things we go to our shrinks for can be helped by adding a few key nutrients -- look up depression, for example. We may still need therapy, but we won't be fighting the battle at the cellular level in addition to dealing with our histories!

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Acid: a substance or chemical that has a high number of electrons in the outer shell, which gives the substance certain reactive properties; capable of combining with a base to produce a salt

ALERT: abbreviation for Adelle's book Let's Eat Right to Keep Fit

Alkaline: also called a base; a substance or chemical that has a low number of electrons in the outer shell, which gives the substance certain reactive properties; it is capable of combining with an acid to produce a salt

Amino Acids: An amphoteric organic amino acid containing the amino group NH2: esp: any of the alpha-amino acids that are the chief components of proteins and are synthesized by living cells or are obtained as essential components of the diet. They are the building blocks of protein. Amino acids contain nitrogen, unlike other foods. There are 22 kinds of amino acids. Thousands of kinds of proteins can be made from these 22 amino acids. (See "Essential Amino Acids" below.)

Atom: the basic unit of matter, generally thought to be composed of three kinds of smaller particles (protons, neutrons, and electrons), the number of the particles in the atom determining the observable properties that that substance has; generally, the nucleus of the atom is made of protons and neutrons, while the much smaller electrons orbit around the nucleus, one electron for each proton, in an arrangement of spherical shells, or so it has been conceived in the past; there are only about 100 different kinds of atoms in the universe, numbering from 1 (which is hydrogen, having one proton and one electron) to Lawrencium (having 103 protons and electrons) (See "Elements" below.)

Beriberi: a disease caused by B-vitamin deficiencies, marked by inflammatory or degenerative changes of the nerves, digestive system, and heart caused largely by a lack of, or inability to assimilate, the B vitamin thiamine, as well as other B vitamins

Bioflavonoids: Ketone derivatives that occur in many parts of primroses and other plants, and which enhance the activity of Vitamin C in humans; sometimes used as dyestuffs

Calorie: 1. One of two recognized units of heat. The large or great calorie is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one kilogram of water 1 degree Centigrade. The small calorie is the amount of heat required to raise one gram of water 1 degree Centigrade. 2. Physiol. The large calorie, a measure of the energy value of foods or the heat output of organisms./ An amount of food having an energy-producing value of one large calorie.

Carbohydrates: Sugars, starches and cellulose; compounds containing carbon combined with hydrogen and oxygen, which break apart to release quick energy

Chemical: a substance derived by chemical processes, or used to create something through chemical processes; a chemical is usually composed of just one kind of molecule, or a specific blend of several kinds of molecules in specific proportions

Complete Protein: A protein food that contains all 8 essential amino acids, and thus is capable of supporting life if no other protein source is consumed.

Compound: a mixture of chemicals; also called a "chemical compound"

Element: a substance composed of just one kind of atom; look up "element" in your dictionary for a list of them; they can be gaseous, liquid or solid; there are 102 different kinds of elements, at last count.

Emulsified: when a substance has been blended into another substance in an emulsion

Emulsion: a combination of two liquids that normally will not mix, accomplished by breaking up one liquid into extremely tiny particles that remain suspended in the other liquid; most commonly, a combination of an oil or fat in a water-based liquid; oil-based vitamins are often treated this way in hopes they will be better absorbed in the digestive tract

Essential Amino Acids: Of the 22 amino acids, all but 8 can be manufactured in the body. These 8 amino acids must be obtained from foods; thus they are termed "essential." They are tryptophane, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, valine, leucine, and isoleucine. Two more are sometimes essential to children: histidine and arginine. The proteins of beans (legumes) and grains have complementary essential amino acids, and when the two foods are eaten together, the resulting protein provides all 8 essential amino acids.

Essential Fatty Acids ("EFA's"): Fatty acids that the body cannot produce, and which are extremely important for myriad health processes. There are two types of EFA's: Omega-3 and Omega-6. They cannot be interchanged in the body. Omega-3's come largely from the green parts of plants (especially grass eaten by ruminants) but including some seeds, and the sea plankton eaten by fish. Omega-6's come from many seeds of plants and animals that eat them. Today, with most of our food animals being fed corn and other grains, Americans are extremely high in Omega-6's and deficient in Omega-3's, which can cause major health disorders. Many, many nutritionists are recommending supplementing the diet with Omega-3 EFA's as a preventative measure for myriad diseases. This was research that was just beginning to come to the public's attention in the 1980's; before that time, Adelle Davis was seeing the very earliest research when she commented on the linoleic, linolenic, and arachnidonic EFA's.

Fatty Acids: Any of numerous saturated aliphatic monocarboxylic acids, including many that occur naturally, usually in the form of esters in fats, waxes, and essential oils; any of the saturated or unsaturated monocarboxylic acids (as palmitic acid) usually with an even number of carbon atoms that occur naturally in the form of glycerides in fats and fatty oils

Iodide: any of several compounds containing iodine, artifically added to salt to prevent goiter, an enlarging of the thyroid gland of the throat due to deficiency of iodine; Adelle believed strongly in using real sea salt, or iodized salt

Iodine: chemical element number 53, using the symbol "I"; needed by the thyroid glands to produce the hormone thyroxin, which profoundly regulates growth and metabolism; certain soils that were once under the ocean (along the Atlantic Coast, and parts of Kansas, South Dakota, Utah, western Texas and New Mexico) have enough iodine to produce foods of adequate iodine content --- elsewhere, the only reliable sources are sea foods including ocean fish including shellfish, kelp of all kinds, and real sea salt (ALERT p. 181)

Mineral: homogeneous substance composed of molecules made of a combination of several elements, usually in solid and/or rock form, often as crystals, generally found in the ground and sea water (which contains all of the elements on Earth); when nutritionists speak of "minerals" they usually mean elements, such as calcium, iron, magnesium, many others; this website will use the term "mineral elements" for such chemicals

Nutrient: a general term for any substance in foods, or added to foods, that promotes health in describable ways

Organic: Adelle writes, "grown on humus-rich soil without the addition of artificial fertilizers" and in her day, the term "organic" meant food grown to be vibrantly health-promoting, full of life, close to nature, and all the indefineables we all know mean naturally grown on rich soil, managed by good farmers who keep down pests through their expertise and skills; in chemistry, the term "organic" simply means molecules that contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, which all life is largely composed of; today, states and countries define the term differently, but it usually means food that does not have added artificial chemicals of any kind; such a term says little or nothing about the vibrancy of life in the food

Pellagra: a disease caused by a multiple B-vitamin deficiency, marked by dermatitis, gastrointestinal disorders, and central nervous system symptoms, and associated with a diet deficient in niacin, protein and other B vitamins (See "Beriberi" above.)

Protein: Unlike other living molecules, proteins contain nitrogen. They are made from "Amino Acids" (q.v.); there are thousands of kinds of proteins. The body is built largely of proteins. Therefore, meat, fish, milk, cheese, and eggs are excellent sources of protein.

Retinol: the original "vitamin A," which is the unadulterated compound found in animal fats, especially liver

Salt: the word itself is cognate to the Greek hals, meaning both "salt" and "sea"; sodium chloride, or "table salt", is just one type of salt, which generally means a residue left over from the evaporation of a large amount of water.

Sea salt: as a food labelling term, this means any kind of salt derived from the sea, even pure sodium chloride; usually this product has added iodide to protect against goiter, and some other chemical to keep it from attracting moisture. The term was popularized during the Health Food Movement when people made real sea salt by evaporating sea water and keeping all the crystals and compounds that were formed; the salts thus obtained are composed of all the numerous mineral elements on Earth, in proportions needed by the body (mineral elements occur in the blood in almost the identical proportions in which they occur in sea water). Ironically, there is more iodine in real sea salt than in the commercial product, and in its natural form. Yet the FDA has decreed that real sea salt must be labelled with the repelling words: "Does not contain iodide, a necessary nutrient." Currently we have not found any way to determine from the label whether anything called "sea salt" contains the numerous elements of the ocean, or only sodium chloride. Real sea salt (we make our own) is gray and stays moist due to its power to attract water from the air. Any salt that does not get wet has an added chemical, not required to be identified on the label.

Synergistic: When compound (or muscle) enhances the effectiveness of another compound (or muscle); compounds that work together in the body, an absence of one can cause inefficiency of the others; an oversupply of one or more synergistic compounds can cause a deficiency in the others; pertains especially to the B vitamins

Vitamin: literally means simply "life-giving"; a man-made chemical or naturally-occurring compound derived from foods, plants, or animals, that is essential to human health

Vitamin A: Fat-soluble vitamin obtained largely from animal sources (IF the animal is allowed to eat green plants, not grains, a rarity in the US today); the absence of vitamin A results in hardening (keratinizing) of the mucous membranes

Vitamin B: Water-soluble vitamin complex found especially in the germs of seeds, in yeasts, liver, and vegetables that have varied metabolic functions and include coenzymes and growth factors; the B vitamins work synergistically, and a deficiency of one or some may bring about deficiencies in others

Vitamin C: Water-soluble vitamin found largely in fruits and leafy vegetables, or made synthetically; absence of vitamin C causes scurvy, a breakdown of the cell walls of the body's cells; vitamin C detoxifies toxins in the body, and is used in food preparation to prevent destruction by oxygen

Vitamin D: Fat-soluble vitamins chemically related to steroids, essential for normal bone and tooth structure, and found esp. in fish-liver oils, egg yolk (from naturally-raised chickens), and milk (from grass-fed cows), or produced by activation (as by ultraviolet irradiation) of sterols: as vitamin D2, an alcohol usually prepared by irradiation of ergosterol and used as a dietary supplement in nutrition and medicinally in the control of rickets and related disorders, called also calciferol, or vitamin D3, an alcohol that is the predominating form of vitamin D in most fish-liver oils and is formed in the skin on exposure to sunlight or ultraviolet rays

Vitamin E: Fat-soluble vitamins that are chemically tocopherols, are essential in vertebrates for fertility, preventing muscle degeneration and vascular abnormalities; found especially in leaves and in seed germ oils; used chiefly in animal feeds and as antioxidants

Vitamin G: Riboflavin, one of the B vitamins

Vitamin H: Biotin, one of the B vitamins

Vitamin K: Two fat-soluble vitamins essential for blood clotting because they promote the production of prothrombin; can be produced in the intestine when yogurt is consumed

Vitamin P: Bioflavonoids; enhance the activity of vitamin C

Water-Miscible: a vitamin or other substance, normally not able to mix with water, that is altered to be able to be mixed into water without separating out; water-miscible vitamin A is ten times more toxic than oil-based vitamin A

Wheat Germ: Every seed has an embryo plant inside it called the "germ." It is the part that grows to become the new plant. This embryo is full of vitamins and protein. Since growing cells need B vitamins, the germ is rich in B vitamins. The germ is ground off and sold separately (sometimes it is given away) when wheat and rice are milled. The rest of the wheat and rice grain is mostly pure starch, without many B vitamins.

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