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CHICKEN FEED: Feed Producers
Certified Organic & Preferred
Chicken Feed and Supplement Producers


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Welcome to our directory of producers of excellent poultry and animal feed. It is the opinion of this website that the most healthful eggs and poultry products are produced when fish meal forms a good proportion of the protein in the ration. Since fish is more difficult to handle, it is not often found in pre-formulated rations, but we encourage farmers to consider adding fish (including other seafood) if at all possible. In England and elsewhere where fish/seafood is in the ration, layers can often be productive for well over 10 years.

We especially recommend ...


FERTRELL'S

for their universally-acclaimed nutritional feed supplements and wide range of nutritional products (see Pennsylvania below)
Video: Superb Egg Production System


COUNTRYSIDE NATURAL PRODUCTS

with complete list of ingredients in each of their feeds! (see Virginia below)


CALIFORNIA HATCHERY

Organic, non-medicated poultry feed, including "Layer Developer Feed" (mash), "Chicken Feed" (mash), "Chicken Feed Pellets," "Baby Chick Food," and "Baby Duckling Food." This webpage includes a complete ingredients list and percentages list, including such excellent items as kelp, soy, live lactobacillus cultures, several different grains, wheat middlings, and a comprehensive vitamin and mineral supplementation.

ATTRA Organic Livestock Feed Suppliers,
for the most comprehensive, easy-to-use, clickable national directory of highest-quality poultry feed producers




States are listed alphabetically

 
VALLEY RANCHERS
Arcadia, CA  			(California, USA)
800 - 354-4503. 
Email: eggscvr@pacbell.net 
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

WILLOW BROOK FEEDS
PO Box 750818
Petaluma, CA 94999 		(California, USA)
Contact: Dick Kringle
Tel: 707 - 795-7190
Mainly broiler, layer, and turkey rations, but also hog and dairy. Only mash - no pellets. Nutritonist on staff. Uses both house and custom formulation. Certified by Oregon Tilth. Hours 8-5 PDT M-F.
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

MODESTO MILLING CO-OP 
Modesto, CA  			(California, USA)
Contact: Chris Wagner
Email:  cwagner@modestomilling.com
Website: www.modestomilling.com
Tel: 209-523-9167 office | 209-610-1066 cell
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

RAINBOW MEALWORMS
126 E. Spruce Street
Compton, CA 90220 		(California, USA)
Tel:  800-777-9676 
Email: rainbowm@earthlink.net
Contact: Fred Rhyme
Website: www.rainbowmealworms.com
We have improved and expanded our line of products ever since the start of Rainbow Mealworms. Quality has always led the way. We now have several great products to offer our customers.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

CALIFORNIA HATCHERY
PO Box 1305
Vallejo, CA. 94590		(California, USA)
Contact: David
Tel: 530-413-8257
Website: californiahatchery.com
Organic, non-medicated poultry feed, including "Layer Developer Feed" (mash), "Chicken Feed" (mash), "Chicken Feed Pellets," "Baby Chick Food," and "Baby Duckling Food." This webpage includes a complete ingredients list and percentages list, including such excellent items as kelp, soy, live lactobacillus cultures, several different grains, wheat middlings, and a comprehensive vitamin and mineral supplementation.
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

HELFTER FEEDS, INC.
P.O. BOX 266
Osco, Illinois 61274		(Illinois, USA)
Phone:  309-522-5024
Email:  HelfterFeeds@netexpress.net
Website: www.HelfterFeeds.com
Complete Line of Certified Organic Premixes
& Feeds for all your livestock needs.
Free catalog & consultation

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

NS SMITH
3006 Fir Ave.
Brighton, IA 52540   		(Iowa, USA)
Email: sawport@msn.com
Tel: 319 - 694-5124 
Certified organic yellow corn, unground. Located in SE Iowa.
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

DAVID RYAN
1935 E. Euclid AVE
Des Moines, IA 50316 		(Iowa, USA)
Email: David_Ryan@admworld.com 
"We offer soybean meal, pellets, and hulls at competitive prices. For more information on nutrient content and prices, please contact us."
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

 WEST FORK RIVER RANCH
28268 290th Street, 
New Hartford, IA 50660 		(Iowa, USA)
(Near Waterloo) 
Tel: 319 - 983-2875
Contact: Robert Sterken
Email: wfrrsterken@cs.com
OCIA CERTIFIED grain farm. Currently for sale: 300 bu. organic gerry oats, and organic yellow waxy corn. It works good for our livestock, including chickens. Our farm is OCIA certified; no chemicals on this farm for 12 years. Will contract future crop or custom raise what you need.
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

FRESH START GROWERS SUPPLY
1007 E. Jefferson Street
Louisville, Kentucky 40206	(Kentucky, USA)
(502) 442-7883 Phone
(502) 442-7881 Fax
Email: info@freshstartgrowers.com
Website: http://store.freshstartgrowers.com/SearchResults.asp?Cat=74
"Fresh Start Growers Supply, located in Louisville, Kentucky, is dedicated to providing natural and organic fertilizers, soil amendments and animal care products for farms, lawns and gardens. We specialize in Fertrell brand products and carry a full line of sustainable and organic animal care products..."
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

NORTHERN-MOST FEEDS, LLC
Catherine & Ben Albert	                  (Maine, USA)
155 Gagnon Rd
Madawaska, ME 04756
(207) 728-3150
northernmostfeeds@yahoo.com
Organic chicken, turkey, and livestock feed. An excellent product.
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

CVK FARMS LLC
Imlay City, MI 			(Michigan, USA)
Contact: Craig Kovocic
Tel: 810 - 724-1476
Layer, broiler, and turkey rations (hog rations also available). 50-lb bags or bulk. Custom or house formulation. Also available are 50-lb bags of vitamin and mineral pre-mix for poultry.
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

ATLAS FEED AND GRAIN LLC
429 West Franklin St.
Clinton, MI 49236		(Michigan, USA)
Contact:  Brian Reilly
Phone:  517-456-4455
Fax:  517-456-8557
Email:  breilly2@aol.com
Laying mash from local grains with Purina concentrate
Hog feed
Horse feed
Custom batching our specialty
Custom ingredients procured for the discerning producer,

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

HEARTLAND INTERNATIONAL, INC.
Dennis L. Nun		(Nebraska, USA)
P.O. Box 6664
Lincoln, NE 68506
Email: dlnun@juno.com 
Website: www.heartlandanimalhealth.biz
FASTRACK Probiotic Pack is approved for use in poultry (layers & broilers), dairy, beef, swine, sheep and goat rations. A lot of it is used by horse owners as well.
FASTRACK contains a high concentration of live beneficial bacteria, yeast cultures and enzymes for improved digestion of all feed materials.
For information on the product and to learn how to get set-up with an account and line of credit to handle these products, please check our website.
Thanks for your time.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

ORGANIC FEED COMPANY
PO Box 112
Dawson, ND 58428 		(North Dakota, USA)
Tel: 701 - 327-4249
Fax: 701 - 327-4455
Supplies finished rations for livestock and poultry, both meal and pellets. Also provides direct access to high quality organic feed crop growers.
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

CURLY TAIL ORGANIC FARMS 
11464 Yankee St.
Frederickstown, OH 43019       (Ohio, USA)
Contact:  Edward Snavely 
Tel: 740 - 694-8622

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

DALE FILBRUN FARMS 
3993 SR 503 S
W Alexandria, OH 45381 		(Ohio, USA) 
Contact:  Dale Filbrun  
Tel: 937 - 787-4885
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

FERTRELL'S
Box 265
Bainbridge PA 17502 		(Pennsylvania, USA)
Tel: 717 - 367-1566
Fax: 717 - 367-9319
Website: http://fertrell.com/animalcareproducts.htm
Starter Feed mixes, Starter mix, Fish Meal, Kelp Meal, Nutri-Balancer.

Fertrell offers a full line of products and services necessary for proper livestock management. Fertrell's total nutrition service will diagnose your feeding system and home grown grain. Your feed system will be evaluated, forages analyzed, and rations computer-balanced. You will be furnished with complete nutrition recommendations to aid you in selecting the best possible feeding program for your livestock.

 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

ORGANICS UNLIMITED
120 Liberty Street
PO Box 238
Atglen, PA  19310		(Pennsylvania) USA
Tel:  610-593-2995

Email: organiculimited@onemain.com
Supplies livestock and poultry feed. Meal only- no pellets; 16% layer and 20% grower rations. Bagged (50 or 100 lb) or bulk. Open 8-4 EST. Mill is located in Ackland. Uses Fertrell's minerals in many of their rations.

"We would be glad to discuss the possibilities of providing feed to any group, co-op, or individual."
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

KREAMER FEED
PO Box 38
Kreamer, PA 17833 		(Pennsylvania) USA
Tel: 717 - 374-8148, or 800 - 767-4537
Contact: Bill Robinson
Email: brobins@postoffice.ptd.net
Sells poultry and other livestock (dairy beef, hog) rations. Mash or meal. Bulk or bagged.
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 
MCGEARY ORGANIC, INC.
PO Box 299
Lancaster PA  17608  		(Pennsylvania, USA)
Tel: 800 - 624-3279 or 717 - 394-6931
Email: sales@mcgearygrain.com
Contact: Dave Poorbaugh
Rations for any species (layers, broiler, hog, dairy, etc.) Bagged or bulk. Can sell in 50 lb bags, by rail, or by container for export. Not pelleted. Also supplies certified organic feed ingredients such as grains, vitamin/trace mineral premix, kelp, alfalfa, etc. Sells Excel(tm) soybean meal - an extruded and expelled soybean meal with 7% fat. Certified by QAI and NOFA-NJ. Open 7:30-5 EST.
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

ROCKING DIAMOND
Rt 1
Selby, SD 57472 		(South Dakota USA)
Email: rockdia@rapidnet.com
Tel: 605 - 343-7056
Organic 2nd cutting ALFALFA 3 x 3 x 8 bales. Some bales have pigeon grass and some have kochia weed. Cut without rain. Tight bales. $40/ton. Trucking arranged for you. Northern So. Dak.
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

SOUTHERN TRADITIONS
6014 N. Inspiration 
Mission, TX 78572 		(Texas, USA)
Tel: (956) 583-9183
Email: info@southerntraditionsco.com
Website: http://www.southerntraditionsco.com
The Southern Traditions Co. would like to announce our Nutritious Feed Additives: (Fish Meal) Super Rooster 16oz pellets will sell for $10.50 which includes free shipping within the U.S. for a limited time only. You may visit our online catalog at www.southerntraditionsco.com.

Sincerely, Customer Service Dept.
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

INNOVATORS
10801 Hwy 36 North
Brenham, TX 77833		(Texas, USA)		
Tel: (409) 830-5444
Email: danehobbs@comwerx.net
Contact: Dane Hobbs
Makers of Avia-Boost, Immuno-Boost, and Avia-Charge, along with several other products. Kelp and fish-based supplements to poultry feed, full of biological ingredients too numerous to list! Both powder and liquid forms available.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

VERMONT ORGANIC GRAIN COMPANY
7 Main Street
Bethel VT 05032		           (Vermont, USA)
Supplies livestock and poultry feed. Meal and Pellets. Bagged or bulk. Staffer available to do individual feed formulations.

Hours 8-5 Eastern Standard Time, Monday through Friday.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

COUNTRYSIDE NATURAL PRODUCTS
http://www.countrysidenatural.com/

		      		(Virginia, USA)
Email: info@countrysidenatural.com
Website: 
http://www.countrysidenatural.com
We offer a full-range of certified organic grains and minerals for broilers and layers, including a mix specially designed for pastured chicken producers. We are located in central Virginia and we ship anywhere in the US.
[NOTE: ChickenFeed Website thinks this is one of the best ordering pages we've seen]
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

NORTHWEST ORGANIC FOODS, LLC
PO Box 417
Endicott, WA  99125 		(Washington, USA)
Tel: 509 - 657-3400
Fax: 509 - 657-3466
Email: repp@pionnet.com
Contact: Rod Repp
Broiler and layer diets. Can customize. Bagged and bulk. Mash or pelleted. Certified by Washington State Dept. of Ag. Hours 8-5 Pacific.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

HALF MOON FEEDS L.L.C.
Tom Ottmar		(Washington, USA)
39124 North Sherman Rd.
Deer Park, WA 99006
(509) 276-3520
Email:  halfmoonfeeds@cs.com
Website: www.halfmoonfeeds.com
Chicken, horse, cattle, pig, big game, goat, sheep, and mule feed. Their feed is locally grown and made from whole grain. The chickens love it.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

SCRATCH AND PECK FEEDS
Contact: Jody
3883 Hammer Dr.            (Washington, USA)
Bellingham, WA    98226
Phone: 360-318-7585
Website:  www.scratchandpeck.com

We use all Washington-grown organic grains and offer a variety of products for poultry and livestock. We have been met with great enthusiasm. ...you are what your animals eat!

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

CASHTON FARM SUPPLY
199 Front St.
Cashton, WI 54619  		(Wisconsin, USA) 
Ask for: Ernie Petterson, or Tim
Tel: 800 - 822-6671

 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
  
GOLDEN GRAINS 
8244 Jack Rabbit Ave.
Sparta, WI 54656   		(Wisconsin USA)
Contact: Ed Knoll
Tel: 608 - 269-5150

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

 
S&S GRAINS LLP
S1761 Lewis Valley Rd
Arcadia, WI 54612  		(Wisconsin, USA)
Tel: 608 - 323-7297
Contact: Bob Scharlau
"We will buy, sell, roll and mix bagged and bulk livestock feed. Roasted soybeans, corn, wheat, barley, oats, organic kelp, Fertrell Poultry Pre-Mix"


			FEED LOCATORS

NETSEEDS.COM
NetSeeds, Inc.
9001 Hickman Rd. Suite 320
Urbandale, IA 50322  		(Iowa, USA)   
Tel: 877-NetSeed (638-7333)
Fax: 515-331-1621
E-Mail: nsinfo@netseeds.com 
Website: Order online at http://www.netseeds.com
NetSeeds, Inc. is a network of seed industry veterans who believe strongly that there is a better way for purchasing farm inputs. We have utilized our knowledge and founded a nontraditional seed company that values integrity, quality, customer service, technology and very competitive seed pricing that hasn't been available until now. "Because of great acceptance from farmers we have recently and significantly expanded our seed lineup to include corn seed, soybeans, alfalfa, sorghum and grasses."

AGRICULTURE.COM
Website: www.agriculture.com
"See Feeds under our Classified section, for many farmers' posted ads for grain and seed sales."
		
		CANADA


HOMESTEAD ORGANICS
1 Union St.
Box 39
Berwick, Ontario KOC 1GO  Canada
Tel: 613 - 984-0480
Website: http://www.homesteadorganics.ca/
Certified organic feed for chickens, layers, turkeys, dairy goats, cows, etc. Customized for age of animal and stage of production. House or custom mixes. Sold at mill or delivered. Also supplies certified organic grains. Open M-F 9 to 6; Sat 9-12.

		EUROPE

NOTE FROM THE AUTHOR: In the US now, it costs 10 cents a minute to telephone England. And not much more for France. Not suggesting one order feed from so far away. But why not just call to ask about feeds? The information that France, England, Scotland, Ireland, Wales and friends are able to provide, with their fine gardeners, farmers and clubs in a tradition of long-standing excellence, is invaluable.

Dial 011 to get International, then dial 44 for England, or 33 for France, then the number. Usually, from North America, OMIT the first 0 of the European phone number, when dialling direct. England is 4 hours later than the US East Coast, 7 hours later than the West Coast, and France is an hour later than England, so call in the morning to reach them in the afternoon.


		ENGLAND

ALLEN & PAGE Norfolk Mill, Shipdham, Thetford, Norfolk IP25 7SD - England Fax: 44 (0)1362 822910 Tel: 44 01362 822902 SMALLHOLDER RANGE of Allen & Page Thetford, Norfolk Tel: 44 1362 822900
We are an innovative, family owned, national company with four generations of experience. We pride ourselves on making natural feed without nature identical* ingredients or flavours, artificial growth promoters or artificial yolk pigmenters. Our mill is totally drug free ? no antibiotics, coccidiostats or growth promoters.

W & H MARRIAGE & Sons Ltd.
Chelmsford, Essex
Organic livestock & poultry feeds
Layers mashes, pellets and starter crumbs
England
Tel: 01245 354455
 

VITRITION
North Yorkshire & Manton Woods
Organic livestock & poultry feeds
England
Tel: 01777 228741


BOWERINGS ANIMAL FEEDS
Somerset
Tel: 01278 458191



		FRANCE

Thivat Nutrition Animale
La Chaume Blanche
36160 POULIGNY NOTRE DAME, France
T? : 02 54 30 21 21
Fax : 02 54 30 29 08

Thivat Nutrition Animale 
Jean-Marc AYME
B.P. 28
03140 CHANTELLE France
T? : 04 70 90 60 80
Fax : 04 70 90 60 12
organic poultry feed producer mill


SNC Doux Aliment Sologne
Route Sainte Fontaine
18410 CLEMONT SUR SAULDRE,  France
T? : 02 48 81 60 00
Fax : 02 48 58 84 98

SANDERS BERRY
B.P. 229
ZA de Belleplace
36400 LA CHATRE, France 
T? : 02 54 06 04 00
Fax : 02 54 06 07 01
organic poultry feed producer mill


Thoreau Nutrition Animale 
Ga?SAVROT
B.P. 6
45270 LADON  France
T? : 02 38 95 50 14
Fax : 02 38 95 61 74



Guyomarc'h
B.P. 24
45120 CHALETTE SUR LOING France 
T? : 02 38 89 44 44
Fax : 02 38 93 92 45

NUTRISUD 
M. ETIENNE Michel
ZI B.P. 523
26400 CREST  France
T? : 04 75 25 05 57
Fax : 04 75 76 72 44

Valsoleil 
M. MERLET
ZA La Pimpie
26120 MONTELIER France
T? : 04 75 60 15 00
Fax : 04 75 59 99 50

COFNA
La Decluny
84 270 VED?E France 
T? : 04 90 23 33 33
Fax : 04 90 33 38 91

Coop Agricole A1
B.P. 936
64, Boulevard Carnot
62033 ARRAS CEDEX France
T? : 03 21 23 08 08
Fax : 03 21 23 97 40

Doisy Prevital
B.P. 39
59267 PROVILLE France
T? : 03 27 72 55 55
Fax : 03 27 72 55 50

Vanal 
St?ane DEBAVELAERE
69 Rue de Guarbecque
62350 SAINT-VENANT, France
T? : 03 2127 54 21
Fax : 03 2102 86 60
organic poultry feed producer mill

Nord Sanders
Alimentation Animale
59550 LANDRECIES, France 
T? : 03 27 77 74 77
Fax : 03 27 84 72 37

VIGALARDEN
Ch. Gu?e la Comtesse
B.P. 49
08303 REHTEL CEDEX, France
T? : 03 24 39 50 10
Fax : 03 24 38 42 80



		INDIA

SHIVSTONART
Contact Person: Mrs. Usha Deshani
Address : Near Bus Station, Babra,Amreli,
City : Amreli 
State : Gujarat,  INDIA
Zip : 365421
Phone number(s) 00-91-2791-233307
Email address : info@shivstonart
Website : www.shivstonart.com
Type of feed products: 
Chicken grit and Poultry grit 
from granite stone
Product is hygenic and bird friendly
NIGERIA

OLISANTHO FARMS
Illah, Delta State, NIGERIA
Olisemeka Isiekwe
Umutei Farm Land Settlement (UFLS), Umutei Village, Illah
Delta State
Email: olisemeka2@yahoo.co.uk
Phone: +234 (802) 8603437

We are good feed producers mainly for our local poultry and rabbit farms in Nigeria. We produce our feed with equally locally grown sunflower seedmeal and ground cake to reduce the cost of overall feed production. These feeds have given us as much as 98% expected rates in layer and broilers regime that quickly turned our farms to excellent business.

UKRAINE

JSC "Avlita"
Sevastopol Port, Ukraine

Our JSC "Avlita" is a new (2003)high-tech grain terminal in Sevastopol port (Ukraine). As a new dealer we are looking for long terms buyers for Ukrainian & Russian grains. Please visit our website at www.litat.org
And email Vladimir, at arabadzhy@avlita.com




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Feed Instructions
from The Family Poultry Flock, 1979


DEFINITIONS
Types of Feed

Mash: a blend of several feed ingredients, ground to a small size but not to a powder

Pellets: small kernels of compressed mash, causing birds to eat the whole blend, not pick and choose

Crumbles: pellets broken up into smaller pieces

Starter: a blend of feed for chicks and growing birds, usually in the form of mash; approximately the same as "Grower"; can be replaced with "adult" food as soon as chicks go for it, somewhere between 4 and 8 weeks of age

Grower: approximately the same as "Starter"

Layer: feed blend for chickens that are laying eggs, having extra calcium and protein added

Broiler: feed blend for chickens that are growing as fast as possible, in order to be harvested for meat as early as possible

Scratch: whole grains fed separately to chickens, usually scattered on the ground or litter of the coop; usually a mixture of grains, such as wheat, rye, oats, etc. (corn/maize must be cracked before using as scratch grain)

Feed Ingredients Concentrate: a blend of protein-rich foods, plus any other nutrients desired; usually fed together with a grain ration

Grit: angular, hard crushed rock, preferably from granite, used by the chickens in place of "teeth" --- seashells and bone CANNOT substitute for grit; for confinded birds, grit should be offered several times a month at least; it should be of the right size for the age of the bird (see Baby Chicks page); birds allowed to free range don't need to be offered grit -- they find their own ideal sizes and types to suit themselves

Corn: American term meaning maize corn, or "corn on the cob" (in England "corn" means what grain means in the US, that is, all food grains)

Grain: American term meaning any small, hard seeds, especially grass-family seeds (called corn in England); provides energy, B vitamins, phosphorus, and the whole grains are a fair source of protein, too

Bran: the outer coating of a kernel of grain; extremely high in silicon, which slows down its decomposing in the soil; cheap by-product of milling, often given away free by large mills

Germ: the embryo plant inside a kernel of grain; very nutritious and high in protein; wheat and rice germ (also called "rice polish") are a saleable by-product of milling

Middlings: an old milling term for the parts of the kernel that are milled off with the germ, and probably contain both the starch and bran (please email me if you have more specific information :-)

Calcium: provided by sea shells, crushed bone, and fresh or dried greens --- amounts need to be measured closely, if not free range; must be provided in higher quantities as soon as chickens begin to lay eggs

Protein: any food high in amino acids, used to build tissues; protein quality is determined by the "completeness" of the amino acid varieties in the food source; all meats, eggs of all kinds, milk, cheese, nuts, seed germs, and soy beans are high protein sources

Amino acid: a molecule that is one building block of protein; there are many different amino acids, most of which can be manufactured in the body; the few that cannot must be supplied by foods, and are called "Essential Amino Acids"; a food that supplies all 8 essential amino acids is called "complete"

Vitamins: an old, general term meaning "life-giving"; a chemical found in nature or made by man to imitate natural ones; new vitamins, and new uses for known vitamins, are always being discovered; see RECIPES section for which ones to use

Minerals: non-life-created chemicals found in nature; these and vitamins can be added to dietary regimens to improve health; sea water contains all the minerals of the earth, in their natural forms and safe amounts; "trace minerals" are those needed in relatively very tiny amounts, and can be highly toxic if these amounts are exceeded; "macro-minerals" are those needed in large amounts, such as calcium, phosphorous, and magnesium

Kelp: sea-weed, plants that grow in the sea; contains all the minerals of the earth; all kelp is edible, and can easily be dried and fed to chickens by clipping a sheaf of it to something in their area (also, this replaces any need to add salt to their rations)

Methods of Raising Poultry
Free range: ideally, not controlled by fences, able to get to fresh greens and insects; as commercially used, this term allows fences, with minimum amount of space per bird set by government agency definition

Pastured poultry: hens kept in movable, usually wheeled, pens, moved daily over fresh pasture, creating delicious meat and the very most nutritious eggs (and very fertile pastureland, too)

Organic: inspected by government agencies, organic food sources must not contain traces of harmful chemicals; the term as currently used does not insure that poultry has been raised in the best possible way, only that it has near zero harmful ingredients

Types of Chickens
Pullets: female chickens in their first year of lay, or prior to their first moult; female baby chicks

Hens: female chickens in their second year of lay, or after their first moult

Straight Run: a random mixture of male and female baby chicks, usually less expensive than only pullets

Cockerels: male baby chicks; male young domestic fowl

Broilers: chickens raised to be eaten

Layers: chickens raised to be egg-layers

Layer-Broiler: chickens raised to be both egg-laye