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CHICKEN FEED:
Feed Recipes, Rations, Formulas ~~ Modern and Traditional

Rations for hens from state-of-the-art nutritionists of Today, back to expert knowledge from Yesterday's patriarchs and matriarchs

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NOTE: "CORN" means "GRAINS" (in UK) and "MAIZE" (in US)

********************
Modern Chicken Feed Recipes
********************

These recipes are from an expert poultry nutritionist working at a long-established organic feed company.

He says, "Below I have included all of my general rations."

Alfalfa Included! For Pastured or Confined Chickens


19% Broiler Grower:
1015 lb.      Shelled Corn
625 lb.      Roasted Soybeans
  100 lb.      Oats
  100 lb.      Alfalfa Meal
   75 lb.      Fish Meal, 60%
   25 lb.      Aragonite(calcium)
   60 lb.      Poultry  Nutri-Balancer
2000 lb.

16% Pullet Grower:
1215 lb.      Shelled Corn      
450 lb.      Roasted Soybeans
100 lb.      Oats
100 lb.      Alfalfa Meal
   25 lb.      Aragonite(calcium)
   50 lb.      Fish Meal, 60%           
   60 lb.      Poultry Nutri-Balancer
2000 lb.

17% Layer Ration:
965 lb.      Shelled Corn            
600 lb.      Roasted Soybeans
100 lb.      Oats
100 lb.      Alfalfa Meal
175 lb.      Aragonite(calcium)
   60 lb.      Poultry Nutri-Balancer
2000 lb.
All Rations should be Medium ground or rolled.

The Chick Starter Ration may be slightly altered to feed other species of fowl.

You may add 2lb. of fishmeal to 20lb. (5gal. Pail) of Broiler Grower 19%. This addition will provide a 21% protein mix for Chick Starter. This would be for chicks while in the brooder.

You may add 4lb. of fishmeal to 20lb. (5gal. Pail) of Broiler Grower 19%. This addition will provide a 26% protein mix for turkey and game bird starter. To be fed from day 1 thru day 28.

You may add 2lb. of fishmeal to 20lb. (5gal. Pail) of Broiler Grower 19%. This addition will provide a 21% protein mix for Turkey Grower #1. To be fed from day 29 thru day 56.

Once Turkeys are out on pasture they should receive regular broiler grower until slaughter.

No Alfalfa Rations

19% Broiler Grower:
1015 lb. Shelled Corn
 625 lb. Roasted Soybeans
 200 lb. Oats
   75 lb. Fish Meal, 60%
   25 lb. Aragonite(calcium)
   60 lb. Poultry  Nutri-Balancer
2000 lb.

16% Pullet Grower:
1215 lb. Shelled Corn
 450 lb. Roasted Soybeans
 200 lb. Oats
   25 lb. Aragonite(calcium)
   50 lb. Fish Meal, 60%
   60 lb. Poultry Nutri-Balancer
2000 lb.

17% Layer Ration:
 965 lb. Shelled Corn
 600 lb. Roasted Soybeans
 200 lb. Oats
 175 lb. Aragonite(calcium)
   60 lb. Poultry Nutri-Balancer
2000 lb.

All Rations should be coarse ground or rolled. The Chick Starter Ration may be slightly altered to feed other species of fowl.

- You may add 2lb. of fish meal to 20lb. (5gal. Pail) of Broiler Grower 19%. This addition will provide a 21% protein mix for Chick Starter. This would be for chicks while in the brooder.

- You may add 4lb. of fishmeal to 20lb. (5gal. Pail) of Broiler Grower 19%. This addition will provide a 26% protein mix for turkey and game bird starter. To be fed from day 1 thru day 28.

- You may add 2lb. of fishmeal to 20lb. (5gal. Pail) of Broiler Grower 19%. This addition will provide a 21% protein mix for Turkey Grower #1. To be fed from day 29 thru day 56.

- Once Turkeys are out on pasture they should receive regular broiler grower until slaughter.

~~~~ end of nutritionist's instructions ~~~~


"This is what I take to the co-op to get
my broiler and layer rations made:"

Broiler Mix:

Ingredient Weight (pounds)
Corn, ground 250
Corn, crimped 250
Soybeans, roasted 310
Oats 110
Oyster shell 50
Nutri-Balancer 30 provided by Fertrell's
Microbials 1 provided by Fertrell's
Total 1001
		~~~~~ Randy Simpson

Email: Things Eternal Farm
Fairfield, PA


**************************



The following is taken directly from the 1979 source. Anything in SQUARE BRACKETS [ ] is an entry by The World of Chickens.



The Family Poultry Flock

by Lee Schwanz
Farmer's Digest, Inc., 1974
(no city given)

See Feeding Instructions from this book, also.

General Formulas for Home Mixes

Use a combination of ingredients in each category, if possible.

				     lbs/100 lb. of mix
				    Starter Grower Layer 
Coarsely ground grain (corn, milo,   	46    50    53.5
	barley, oats, wheat, rice, 
	etc.)

Wheat bran, mill feed, rice bran,    	10    18    17
	milling by products, etc.

Soybean meal, peanut meal, cottonseed  	39.5  16.5   15
	meal, safflower meal, sesame
	meal, etc. (Soybean meal is
	the preferred protein source.
	Cottonseed meal should be egg-
	tested type low in gossypol.)

Meat meal, fish meal (If meat meal or 	5     5	     3
	fish meal is unavailable,
	soybean meal may be substituted.)

Alfalfa meal (Can be eliminated if 	4     4      4
	fresh pasture is available.)

Yeast, milk powder (Can be eliminated	2     2	     2
	if the vitamin supplement is
	properly balanced.)

Vitamin supplement (Must supply 
200,000 I.U. of Vitamin A, 80,000 
I.C.U. of vitamin D, 100 mg. riboflavin.)

[Note: see Nutrition section.  Pastured poultry 
receive ample vitamins A and D from grass and 
sunshine.  Modern research has shown it is 
unwise to supplement only one B vitamin.  
Grains are naturally very high in all B
vitamins.  Follow the above 1974 advice with
discretion.]

Salt with trace minerals (Trace       0.5     0.5    0.5
	mineral salt or iodized salt 
	supplemented with 1/2 oz. of 
	manganese sulfate and 1/2 oz.
	of zinc oxide.)

Bone meal, deflourinated dicalcium 	2	2     2
	phosphate

Ground limestone, marble, oyster	1	2     3
	shells (Oyster shells and grit
	should be fed free choice to
	layers.)



**************************



A Natural Diet for Laying Hens


Ingredient			lbs/100 lb. of mix
	Yellow corn meal		60.00
	Wheat middlings			15.00
	Soybean meal (dehulled)		8.00
	Maine herring meal (65%)	3.75
	Meat & bone meal (47%)		1.00
	Skim milk, dried		3.00
	Alfalfa leaf meal (20%)		2.50
	Iodized salt			0.40
	Limestone, grd. (38% Ca)	6.35

**************************



A Joel Salatin Layer Ration

From: mayorsson1@hotmail.com
Hello Folks, Here's a Joel Salatin layer ration from '98, for 1 ton of feed.

Roasted soy beans 617#
Ground corn 596#
Cracked corn 398#
Crimped oats 219#
Feed grade limestone 99#
Nutri-balancer 60#
Kelp meal 11#

Here in NC I don't have access to roasted soybeans, so I will substitute soybean meal, a soybean oil and alfalfa meal. My wheat prize will replace the crimped oats, so there is the possibility of their lower protein content being offset by the inclusion of alfalfa meal. I had thought of using a probiotic and possibly some DE. Another producer topdressed their layer ration with aragonite for available calcium. In the past I have used a broiler ration, which uses Sea-Lac fish meal to boost protein, and the layers ate and produced well. I say that "prize wheat makes a tasty treat, and that the price can't be beat!" Any new rhymes or feed recipes anyone? Edward.


Helfter Feeds
Broiler Formulas
for Starter, Grower and Finisher
(Click HERE)


********************
Traditional Feed Recipes
********************

from
THE POULTRYMAN'S HANDBOOK:

A Convenient Reference Book For All Persons Interested in the Production of Eggs and Poultry for Market and the Breeding of Standard-Bred Poultry for Exhibition

by
International Correspondence Schools, Scranton, PA
INTERNATIONAL TEXTBOOK COMPANY
1912

(Everything is quoted accurately from the book, unless it is in square brackets "[ ]" in which case it is an entry by the ChickenFeed website.)

RATIONS FOR SIXTEEN HENS FOR 30 DA.

---The accompanying table contains twelve desirable rations for feeding to hens. The quantities given in each division are sufficient for feeding 16 hens for 30 da., and provide about 4 oz/ of food daily for each hen. The whole grain in all these rations is fed by hand; the meal and meat in each is mixed together and fed either as a wet or a dry mash. Rations (i) and (j) are double, or two-part, rations. One-half of the daily ration is fed from each; the two answer for 60 da. Rations (a), (b), (c), and (d) are best suited to a promiscuous lot of fowls ranging in age from 6 mo. to several years. Rations (e), (f), (g), and (h), being largely composed of concentrated foods, are best suited for laying hens. Rations (i) and (j) are for laying hens that have free range and are able t0o pick up insects enough to supply their demand for animal food. Rations (i) and (k) are fed in hoppers as dry mash. The molasses feed used should be of good quality. Ration (l) consists of meals, wheat and milk; the meals should be moistened with the milk. In the use of all rations where meals only are mentioned, a daily ration for each hen should consist of 2 pz. or dry meal, fed wet or dry, and an equal quantity of whole grain.

[None of these rations furnish sufficient mineral matter for egg formation and for the other demands of nature. Grit, limestone, oyster shell, or some similar material must be supplied in addition, especially if chickens are confined in any way.]

Note: GRIT and OYSTER SHELL or SEA SHELLS are two entirely different things. Sea shells and other calcium-containing substances just dissolve in the chicken's. They cannot be a substitute for grit. [Grit is hard rock.] It is what grain-eating fowl need in place of "teeth" and it must be available in the right sizes. Substituting sea shells for "grit" is like giving someone false teeth made of chalk. I think the old timers had so many free range hens (notice the early use of the term "free range") that the hens got enough grit when they were out and about, so it wasn't a concern.




30-DAY RATIONS FOR SIXTEEN HENS

Food			Pounds
	
	(a)
Corn			50
Oats or barley		24
Wheat bran		10
Middlings		5
Corn meal		25
Meat scrap		8
Cut clover		10

	(b)
Corn			50
Oats or barley		24
Wheat bran		10
Flour middlings		4
Corn meal		28
Animal meal		7
Cut clover		10

	(c)
Corn			50
Wheat			25
Corn meal		28
Flour middlings		2
Hominy chop		10
Meat scrap		7
Cut clover		10

	(d)
Corn			50
Wheat			25
Corn meal		25
Wheat bran		10
Middlings		5
Alfalfa meal		4
Meat scrap		7

	(e)
Alfalfa hay or meal	18
Wheat bran		10
Middlings		30
Coconut-oil-cake meal	10
Meat meal		6
Wheat 			60

	(f)
Alfalfa			18
Wheat bran		14
Middlings		17
Linseed-oil-cake meal	6
Blood meal		4
Barley or oats		25
Wheat			50

	(g)
Corn meal		24
Wheat bran		18
Alfalfa meal		10
Blood meal		3
Meat meal		6
Oats or barley		30
Wheat			40

	(h)
Wheat shorts		18
Corn meal		25
Blood meal		5
Alfalfa meal 		5
Cottage cheese 		12
Wheat 			60

	(i)
Wheat bran		40
Middlings		20
Corn meal		20
Alfalfa meal		40

	(j)
Wheat			60
Cracked corn		30
Oats			15
Barley			15

	(k)
Corn meal		10
Molasses feed		20
Middlings		40
Wheat bran		30
Meat scrap		10
Clover hay		10

	(l)
Middlings		30
Wheat bran		24
Meat meal		6
Skim-milk		90
Wheat			60


FEEDING FARM FLOCKS

Farm flocks, to be profitable, must have a ration suitable for the production of both eggs and good table meat. No error in feeding farm flocks is more common or more disastrous than that of giving too much fat-forming food. [Note: this is confirmed by modern breeders.] An all-green ration renders the hens excessively fat, sometimes induces apoplexy, and causes the production of but few eggs. A grain ration for farm flocks may be composed of grains in the following proportions, by weight:


Food			Parts

Cracked corn		20
Wheat			40
Oats			15


Cracked corn is preferable because it is small, and, like wheat and oats, when cast into litter must be sought for by the fowls. During the winter all grain should be thrown into dry chaff or litter of some kind in order to keep the hens busy hunting for it.

During the winter months the hens on the farm should have a noonday feed of warm mash, the mixture being composed, by weight, as follows:


Food			Parts

Corn meal		40
Meat			30
Short-cut alfalfa 
	or clover hay	30
Oyster shell		2
Grit			1
Charcoal		1


The meat and hay should be cut into small pieces and voiled to a pulp, and before cooling the mass should be mixed with enough meal to make a dry, crumbly mass. This should be fed cool in troughs."






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Definitions
Mash: a blend of several feed ingredients, ground to a small size but not to a powder

Pellets: small kernels of compressed mash, causing birds to eat the whole blend, not pick and choose

Grower: a blend of feed for chicks and growing birds, usually in the form of mash; approximately the same as "Starter"

Starter: a blend of feed for chicks and growing birds, usually in the form of mash; approximately the same as "Grower"

Crumbles: pellets broken up into smaller pieces

Concentrate: a blend of protein-rich foods, plus any other nutrients desired; usually fed together with a grain ration

Scratch: grains fed separately to chickens, usually scattered on the ground or litter of the coop

Grit: angular, hard crushed rock, preferably from granite, used by the chickens in place of "teeth" --- seashells and bone CANNOT substitute for grit; for confinded birds, grit should be offered several times a month at least; it should be of the right size for the age of the bird (see Baby Chicks page); birds allowed to free range find their own grit; they don't need to be offered grit

Corn: American term meaning maize corn, or "corn on the cob" (in England "corn" means what grain means in the US)

Grain: American term meaning any small, hard seeds, especially grass-family seeds (called corn in England)

Calcium: provided by sea shells, crushed bone, and fresh or dried greens --- amounts need to be measured closely, if not free range

Protein: any food high in amino acids, used to build tissues; protein quality is determined by the "completeness" of the amino acid varieties in the food source; basically, meats, nuts, seed germs, and soy concentrates are protein sources

Amino acid: a molecule that is one building block of protein; there are many different amino acids, most of which can be manufactured in the body; the few that cannot must be supplied by foods

Vitamins: a general term meaning "life-giving"; see RECIPES section for which ones to use

Minerals: inert chemicals found in nature; kelp of all kinds supplies the complete spectrum of minerals

Free range: not controlled by fences, able to get to fresh greens and insects; as commercially used, this term allows fences, with minimum amount of space per bird being set by definition

Pastured poultry: hens kept in movable, usually wheeled, pens, moved daily over fresh pasture, creating delicious meat and nutritious eggs

Organic: inspected by government agencies, organic food sources must not contain traces of harmful chemicals; the term as currently used does not insure that poultry has been raised in the best possible way, only that it has near zero harmful ingredients

Pullets: female chickens in their first year of lay, or prior to their first moult

Hens: female chickens in their second year of lay, or after their first moult Straight Run: a random mixture of male and female baby chicks

Cockerels: male baby chicks; male young domestic fowl