Baby chicks need summery warmth, chick starter, water

 

CHICKEN FEED:
Topics of Interest
Online articles about feeding chickens healthfully,
with complete references and links

Get your Car or Truck...UNSTUCK!
With
Lions Grip
Traction Pads tm

MAIN MENU
Introduction
Feed Recipes
Feed Instructions
Protein Calculation
The Ideal Feed
Baby Chicks
Feed Producers
Online Experts
Pastured Poultry
Farms Selling Eggs
Worms for Feed
Inside an Egg
Labels
About Nutrition
Related Directories
Traditional Stuff
Abstracts
Feed Topics
Posts

Special Searches
National Ag Library
Agricola
Bad Bug Book
Newsgroups
Foods Composition
Scientific Articles


Links
EatWild.com
American Grassfed
American Pastured Poultry Producers Assn
American Forage & Grasslands Council
Path to Freedom
The City Chicken
Photos of Breeds
McMurray Hatchery
McKinney Hatchery
Hatcheries Index
Norton Creek Press
Palm Beach Fanciers
Virginia Co-op Ext
Sustainable Ag Orgs
OMRI Organic Authority
Organic Trade Assn
Am Health, Nutrition
Poultry & Egg News
City Farmer Canada
Canada Org Grower
ATTRA
FDA



JOIN Chicken-Feed discussion at


Weather!
By Wunderground
RIGHT CLICK TO RETURN HERE


Webstuff
New WebSurfer?
Copy This Website
Submit a Link
Submit Feed Sources
Advertising

COLOR ME!
CLICK TO GET A CHICKEN TO COLOR. Information exchange on natural, organic chicken feed and poultry nutrition, free range chickens, pastured poultry, grassfed poultry, inspired by the excellent quality of modern alternative poultry methods
KIDS! Click here.



  

Trouble?
Get your Car or Truck
Out of MUD, SAND, BOAT RAMPS, GRASS, ICE, SNOW!!
With
Lions Grip
Traction Pads
tm


Also, see the Posts section for discussion-group comments on feed and related topics.

Contents:
1) FISH PROTEIN IS THE BEST FEED INGREDIENT
2) PROTEIN IS OF UTMOST IMPORTANCE
3) FEEDING NEWLY-HATCHED CHICKS
4) FEEDING NEWLY-HATCHED CHICKS, DETAILED INSTRUCTIONS
5) MAKE FEED WITH WILD BIRD SEED AND SCRATCH GRAINS
6) MAKE FEED USING RABBIT PELLETS
7) NATURAL CHICKEN FEED SOURCES; ADDED CORN
8) FLIES FED TO CHICKENS
9) CLEAN FEEDERS MEAN NO RATS
10) FROM HATCHLINGS TO YARD BIRDS
11) MIXED FEEDS AT EACH STAGE OF GROWTH, PACIFIC NW AREA
12) MIXED FEEDS AT EACH STAGE OF GROWTH, ARIZONA U.
13) FEEDING CHICKENS ENGLISH STYLE
14) REPORT ON ORGANIC POULTRY PRODUCTION IN BRITAIN

[Bracketed notes added by ChickenFeed website.]

1) FISH PROTEIN IS THE BEST FEED INGREDIENT
From "The Advice Centre: Handling and Welfare" http://www.poultryclub.org/ACHandling.htm#1
In THE POULTRY CLUB OF GREAT BRITAIN http://www.poultryclub.org/home.htm

"If you can find an additive-free feed you are fortunate, but the trend is going that way. The general ingredients of all feedstuffs are listed on the label in descending order of weight but very few mills will tell you precisely which ingredients they use; they talk in terms of protein percentage but it is the type of protein which is important. The finest and best value protein, as the hen can use it all and therefore needs less of it, is fishmeal. Grain in the form of wheat is a good diet but more protein and minerals are needed for optimal egg production. [Note: simple boiled soybeans do a great job of supplying protein and continuing Winter egg production! See our Protein Section for how to prepare soybeans for chickens] Go for the best feed you can afford in order to produce the best birds. It is possible to get feed made up to your own formula if enough people get together to use it within its shelflife. As a treat, poultry will love any household food scraps which are beneficial providing they are not the base diet.

"A regular supply of clean, fresh water is essential for all poultry: sometimes called the forgotten nutrient." [Note: put it right in their line of traffic]




2) PROTEIN IS OF UTMOST IMPORTANCE
From "Chickens and Their Daily Needs" http://www.geocities.com/Heartland/Hills/2503/needs.html

"Feed must contain the proper amount of protein for the needs of the particular type of chicken and it's age. Commercial feeds are formulated to meet those needs. Layer chicks require medicated chick starter for the first eight weeks of their lives [note from Chicken Feed Website: many disagree that all chicks need medicated feed -- the small farm environment does not require it, according to people in the know] and a developer until eighteen weeks of age; gradually change their rations to layer crumbles or pellets. Broiler chicks, sporting birds, and specialty flocks require different rations that are especially formulated for them. Mixing of these feeds, causes an imbalance of the protein and is not recommended.

"Scratch Feed" is used by many as a way to reduce costs, but, egg production drops and the hens are not in prime condition when this is done. I consider this type of feed to be a treat and give it to them periodically as a second meal in the day. I also like to give my chickens lots of greens in their diet. The greens are nutritious and adds color to the yolks of their eggs. I give them fruit, also. They love to see me coming with banana peels or apple peels."




3) FEEDING NEWLY-HATCHED CHICKS
From "Feeding Your Peeps" http://beta.homestead.com/shilala/feeding.html
In THE EASY CHICKEN

"Got them by mail? Chicks arriving by mail have been stressed pretty heavy. Give them feed and water as if you hatched them yourself, and watch them closely. If they take to the feed and water quickly, you may not want to mess with anything else. They should be fine. If they do not take to the food and water, you can help them along by dipping their beaks. You can also peck at the feed with your finger. If they are still not responding, put marbles in the waterers. Show them how to peck, and keep their attention. Once you get a couple to eat and drink, the others will quickly follow.




4) FEEDING NEWLY-HATCHED CHICKS, DETAILED INSTRUCTIONS
From "Hatching and Brooding Small Numbers of Chicks " http://www.extension.umn.edu/distribution/livestocksystem s/DI0631.html
In UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA EXTENSION SERVICE http://www.extension.umn.edu/

"About 2 inches of litter material give the chicks better footing and help keep the box clean. Wood shavings, chopped straw or paper, peat moss, or sand are suitable. Replace the litter when necessary to keep the box clean and dry.

"Waterers to be used with pint canning jars are often available at farm supply stores. They should be placed onto a wooden block to help keep them free from litter. A small dishówith marbles or pebbles added to keep the chicks out of the waterócan be used for a waterer. You can also use a saucer having an inverted cup placed over it. Replace the water twice a day, or more frequently if necessary to keep the water clean and fresh. Clean the waterer each time you make the change, and refill it with lukewarm water.

"Although chicks don't need feed or water the first 48 hours after hatching, both are usually provided as soon as the chicks are transferred to the rearing box. Use a small box or tray for a feeder. Let the chicks scratch around in the feed for the first few days so they get off to a good start on the feed and don't eat too much litter.

"Chicks are best started on a chick starter mash. For other poultry, use the appropriate starter feed for that species, of bird, if available. Mashed, hardcooked egg also makes an I excellent starter feed. You can use breakfast cereal for a few days if it is in a form the chicks can readily eat. Rapidly growing chicks must have a well-balanced starter diet for proper growth and development."




5) MAKE FEED WITH WILD BIRD SEED AND SCRATCH GRAINS
From http://www.upc-online.org/home.html
Providing a Good Home for Chickens

Fresh Food and Water
Chickens must always have plenty of fresh clean water. Their foraging areas should be free of applied chemicals and their food must be fresh. Store their food in clean, dry, rodent-proof metal containers. Moldy food poisons chickens and should never be fed to them. Premixed nutritionally-balanced food is available in bulk (e.g. 50 lbs), or you can make your own by mixing together chicken scratch (whole wheat & cracked corn sold in bulk at feed stores) and a good selection of wild bird food. (Premixed poultry rations often contain antibiotics and typically include rendered dead and diseased birds, offal and other slaughterhouse refuse.) Mix roughly: 65% grains including barley, corn, milo (sorghum), millet, oats, wheat, brown rice; 10% alfalfa meal or ground hay; 16-20% sunflower or oil seeds, dried peas, cooked soybeans or soybean meal--don't feed chickens raw soybeans, which have toxins [See the Protein Section for a simple way to prepare soybeans; however, some farmers have reported feeding their chickens raw soybeans for years!]; 7% hydrated lime for extra calcium for eggshell formation; 1% trace mineral salt. Chickens have gizzards instead of teeth to grind food. To grind, gizzards employ grit--pebbles and other hard indigestible objects chickens pick up while foraging. An indoor chicken should always have some grit available. Chickens love fresh treats. (Contrary to what you may have heard, chickens do not like garbage.) Offer them cooked spaghetti with tomato sauce, steamed brown rice, grapes, fresh greens, chopped cooked potatoes, whole grain bread, raw tomatoes, and their own eggs hard-boiled including the shells (eggshells have calcium and other minerals for chickens).




6) MAKE FEED USING RABBIT PELLETS
From http://brill.acomp.usf.edu/~jvanhorn/care.html
FEED THEM WELL!
My chickens eat a basic diet of scratch grains and rabbit pellets. I feed rabbit pellets because lay ration contains dead ground up chickens and often lots of weird chemicals and stuff they don't need. In addition, my chickens get bread, all sorts of veggies and fruits, and pasta. Their favorites are leftover corn cobs, apple cores, squishy tomatoes and lettuce. I'm trying to start up a cricket growing enterprise too, because they just love juicy bugs. Don't give them roaches and things that may have been poisoned, though. Chickens that live outdoors pick up little rocks that they store in their gizzards and use as teeth to grind up food. You can buy grit to give to them if you think there are not enough rocks on the ground for them. Oyster shell, which is a good source of calcium, is also a good supplement to give chickens.




7) NATURAL CHICKEN FEED SOURCES; ADDED CORN From "Feeding"
In CHICKENS (FOWL) CARE AND ACCOMODATION" [Netherlands]
http://www.casema.net/%7Egjosinga/feeding.htm
Email: gjosinga@casema.net

"If the fowl are kept free on the grounds or in the garden they scratch their food for a part themselves. The natural food consists of grain, seeds, berries, certain plants, worms, snails, insects and such things. A fowl has no teeth's, that's why they pick up some little stones, which in the muscular stomach helps with the crushing and digestion of the food. . . . Fowl can define themselves how much they have to eat from there regular food, so the trough can be filled all times. If fowl turns too fat they will stop laying eggs, then we have to give them less corn."




8) FLIES FED TO CHICKENS
From "Chickens in Soup" http://www.cityfarmer.org/chicken84.html In URBAN AGRICULTURAL NOTES by City Farmer,
Canada's Office of Urban Agriculture
http://www.cityfarmer.org/
Email: cityfarm@interchange.ubc.ca

"In the city the chickens must be kept in a clean environment, fed an adequate diet and given all the fresh pure water they will drink. These precautions ensure healthy animals.

"Flies which are attracted to the ammonia in chicken wastes are put to good use. They are captured in traps and fed to the hens. Some studies have shown that at least a quarter of a chicken's diet can be flies, another half weeds and other plant wastes, and their egg laying will still continue to equal that of chickens raised entirely on commercial feed."




9) CLEAN FEEDERS MEAN NO RATS
From "Chickens in Soup"
http://www.cityfarmer.org/chicken84.html
In URBAN AGRICULTURAL NOTES by City Farmer,
Canada's Office of Urban Agriculture
http://www.cityfarmer.org/
Email: cityfarm@interchange.ubc.ca


"When it's feeding time, give your birds just enough feed to last them until dark because rodents travel at night looking for food. And always clean out your feeders at night so rats and mice won't have a reason to visit. This will also silence the health inspector."




10) FROM HATCHLINGS TO YARD BIRDS
From "Caring for Chicks"
http://www.poplaracre.com/SSCaringForChicks.html
In VEGETABLE GARDENS OF THE COLUMBIA BASIN
http://www.poplaracre.com/index.html

"Start your chicks on crumbles. You can buy this as starter feed or Start & Grow which you can continue to feed them as pullets. You do not need to provide grit as long as you feed your chicks exclusively on crumbles. As soon as you switch to whole grains and other foods, you must provide grit to enable digestion. Start & Grow and other starter feeds come in both medicated and non-medicated forms (see below). A chick feeder is a good idea, especially at first, as this will help keep the feed clean. Later, you may choose to feed chicks on the ground where they can scratch for the feed but this is less sanitary and may contribute to the spread of disease. The feed should be kept in front of them at all times. If it completely runs out before the next feeding, you need to increase the ration. I feed my chicks morning and evening. "




11) MIXED FEEDS AT EACH STAGE OF GROWTH, PACIFIC NW AREA
From "Raising Chickens for Meat or Eggs"
http://poplaracre.com/SSChickens.html#Coop
In VEGETABLE GARDENS OF THE COLUMBIA BASIN http://www.poplaracre.com/index.html

"Feeds are available to suit the changing needs of the chickens. Chicks can be fed a starter mix until they are feathered out. Then they can be fed maintenance feed until they start laying. Layers can be fed egg booster and scratch. Adequate storage is needed for the feed to keep it dry and keep rodents out. The galvanized trashcan (left) is ideal. Chickens like other birds need a supply of grit for digestion."




12) MIXED FEEDS AT EACH STAGE OF GROWTH, ARIZONA U.
From "General Guidelines for Husbandry"
http://www.ahsc.arizona.edu/uac/iacuc/poultry/general.sht ml#feed
In IACUC LEARNING MODULE - POULTRY
(An online college course in Animal Husbandry of Poultry, with great illustrations)
http://www.ahsc.arizona.edu/uac/iacuc/poultry/poultry.shtm l

"The birds currently housed at UAC are given food purchased from Arizona Feeds. Baby chicks are fed chick "starter mash," young birds are fed "grower crumbles," and adult birds are fed "egg layer crumbles" regardless of their egg production level. Hens that are producing eggs with soft shells are supplemented with oyster shell for calcium. Adult chickens housed at UAC in the production cages are on automatic water systems."




13) FEEDING CHICKENS ENGLISH STYLE
From "Chickens in the Garden" http://www3.mistral.co.uk/cgs/chickens.htm Katie Thear. Country Smallholding Magazine, Station Road, Saffron Walden, Essex CB11 3PL, UK.
Tel: + (0)1799 5-0922. Fax: + (0)1799 541367.
E-mail: katie@countrysmallholding.com
Website: http://www.countrysmallholding.com

What do chickens need?
They need layer's pellets or layer's mash (powder form) in the mornings, and some grain in the afternoon, with clean, fresh water available at all times. Layer's rations are proprietary feeds formulated to provide all the necessary nutrients. Pellets can be given in a feeder from which they help themselves, while the grain can be put on the ground so that they can enjoy scratching for it. Wheat or the more expensive mixed grain can be given.

The hens will also eat the growing tips of grasses, and anything they can forage from their scratching activities. lt's a good idea to provide hens in a run with `greens' such as cabbage leaves, lettuce, home-grown parsley, etc, - hung up so that they can peck at them when they want to. Also provide some poultry grit to help grain digestion in the gizzard, and crushed oystershell for strong eggshells.

Can I buy feeds without animal based ingredients or artificial additives?
Yes. There are feed suppliers who specialize in supplying good quality free-range feeds based on natural ingredients from plant sources. They advertise regularly in Country Smallholding magazine and their products are available via local suppliers. Organic feeds are the only ones that are guaranteed to be free of genetically modified ingredients. The term 'natural feed' has no legal meaning.

Can l make up my own feed?
Yes, but you need to know what you're doing and it's difficult to obtain the necessary ingredients in small quantities. Chickens have a small digestive system and need to eat small amounts frequently. lt's easy to give them too much of one thing at the expense of another. It's much safer, and more convenient, to give them a ready-made mix.

Can I give them kitchen scraps?
Yes, as long as they are fresh and contain no meat or excess salt, and that you are not selling the eggs. Don't give too much or they will not be getting a balanced diet.




14) REPORT ON ORGANIC POULTRY PRODUCTION IN BRITAIN

From "Organic Poultry Production" Edited by Nicolas Lampkin ISBN 0902124 62 5 Welsh Institute of Rural Studies, University of Wales, Aberystwyth, SY23 3AL
http://www.irs.aber.ac.uk/research/Organics/publics/poultry .html

"Nutrition
"The sourcing of sufficient organically-produced ingredients and conventional ingredients acceptable under current and proposed organic standards is a significant issue. The acceptability or otherwise of synthetic amino acids and fishmeal to supplement the protein requirements of poultry causes most concern. The contribution of vegetation and animal proteins obtained at range to the diet of poultry is currently undervalued and should receive more recognition in organic standards and in ration formulation for poultry. For example, mulching of vegetation to encourage earthworms could significantly reduce the need for animal protein and amino acid supplements, but its potential contribution has not been adequately assessed.

"Future potential and key constraints: There is clearly demand for organic poultry products and the potential to increase output. Whether this can be achieved will depend on:

*the development of larger production units so that fixed costs, in particular for labour, can be reduced through increased automation

*the development of centralised packing, killing and processing facilities, together with the development of outlets (such as baby foods) for downgrades

*greater market opportunities and certainty to provide confidence to expand, including the development of appropriate working relations with the multiples

*the availability of poultry feed of an appropriate quality to maintain productivity and at an acceptable price

*the supply of product at a price acceptable to the consumer

*the removal of uncertainty concerning future organic livestock standards and regulations






Get your CAR or TRUCK . . . UNSTUCK!
with

RETURN TO MAIN MENU


Definitions
Mash: a blend of feed ingredients, ground to a small size but not to a powder; mash can be in pellet form

Pellets: small kernels of compressed mash

Concentrate: a blend of protein-rich foods, plus any other nutrients desired; usually fed together with a grain ration

Scratch: grains fed separately to chickens, usually scattered on the ground or litter of the coop

Grit: angular, hard crushed rock, preferably from granite, used by the chickens in place of "teeth" --- seashells and bone CANNOT substitute for grit; grit should be free-choiced several times a month at least

Calcium: provided by sea shells, crushed bone, and fresh or dried greens --- amounts need to be measured closely, if not free range

Protein: any food high in amino acids, used to build tissues; protein quality is determined by the "completeness" of the amino acid varieties in the food source; basically, meats, nuts, seed germs, and soy concentrates are protein sources

Amino acid: a molecule that is one building block of protein; there are many different amino acids, most of which can be manufactured in the body; the few that cannot must be supplied by foods

Vitamins: a general term meaning "life-giving"; see RECIPES section for which ones to use

Minerals: inert chemicals found in nature; kelp of all kinds supplies the complete spectrum of minerals

Free range: not controlled by fences, able to get to fresh greens and insects; as commercially used, this term allows fences, with minimum amount of space per bird being set by definition

Pastured poultry: hens kept in movable, usually wheeled, pens, moved daily over fresh pasture, creating delicious meat and nutritious eggs

Organic: inspected by government agencies, organic food sources must not contain traces of harmful chemicals; the term as currently used does not insure that poultry has been raised in the best possible way, only that it has near zero harmful ingredients

Pullets: female chickens under 1 year old

Hens: female chickens over 1 year old